Solid steps have been taken in agricultural scientific and technological innovation in grain production to achieve "nineteen consecutive abundant harvests"
Release time: 2023-01-16
At the beginning of the New Year, everything changes。Although the winter is not over, the fields are already pregnant with new vitality: in Xinxiang, Henan province, winter wheat has drunk enough water and is growing quietly;Huai 'an, Jiangsu province, rice seedling greenhouse, technicians are busy into the rice bowl seedling machine seed...
Agriculture is the basic industry of the national economy, and grain is related to the national transportation and people's livelihood。In 2022, in the face of the global food crisis, China's total grain output will reach 1,373.1 billion jin, achieving "19 consecutive abundant", and the Chinese people's rice bowls will be more firmly held。迈进新征程，习近平总书记在中央农村工作会议上强调，要实施新一轮千亿斤粮食产能提升行动。We should pay close attention to the frontiers of agricultural science and technology in the world, vigorously improve the level of agricultural science and technology in our country, and accelerate the realization of high-level agricultural science and technology self-reliance。
The key to agricultural modernization is the modernization of agricultural science and technology. In recent years, China's agricultural science and technology innovation has made major breakthroughs, and high-level agricultural science and technology has taken solid steps to become self-reliant。In the New Year, agricultural science and technology workers around the country focus on high-yield, low-carbon and other agricultural science and technology frontiers, describing a new round of modern agriculture picture。
"How to make Yangzhou fried rice delicious？The first thing is to have good rice."
It is said that winter is the idle season of farming, but the big farmers in Jianning County, Sanming City, Fujian province, are not idle。At 10 o 'clock on January 9, the "Jianning Five Sons" mountain goods Festival activity sponsored by the Jianning County Industry and Information Technology Bureau was opened on the network broadcast platform, among which, the rice seeds with Jianning characteristics received many orders as soon as they went online。
Jianning County is a national seed production county, one out of every ten hybrid rice seeds comes from here。The landscape of intersecting hills and rivers provides a natural barrier for seed production, making it one of the most advantageous areas for breeding and producing hybrid rice seeds in China。
Seeds are known as agricultural "chips", and the cultivation of improved varieties is an important part of ensuring food security。The report of the 20th National Congress of the Party pointed out that the in-depth implementation of the revitalization of the seed industry, strengthen the support of agricultural science and technology and equipment, and ensure that the Chinese people's rice bowl is firmly in their own hands。In recent years, Jianning County has promoted the construction of hybrid rice industrial park, and a number of leading enterprises have been born, constantly cultivating and promoting hybrid rice varieties known as "Oriental magic rice", and a number of excellent varieties with independent intellectual property rights have been introduced to the whole country from here。
In Jianning County, from the field to the breeding institution, there are high-tech figures everywhere。In the local science and technology center laboratory of seed industry, advanced testing instruments can test and identify seed purity, clarity and other indicators, as well as DNA, to ensure seed quality and safety。The science and technology center adopts a number of advanced technologies such as big data, which can realize the production and management of seeds in the county。
Apart from breeding，In the seed production process，The modern seed production and management system has also made Jianning County realize the "local conditions" of seed production: more than 90,000 mu of seed rice fields，More than 300 varieties per year，Which fields have what kind of climate，What kind of seed is suitable for planting，When to plant, transplant, pollinate, harvest...Can be precisely planned。
In the post-harvest processing of seeds, Jianning County modern agricultural Industrial Park has also developed new technologies such as intensive intelligent oven drying seeds. After rice harvest, you only need to pour into the oven, set the temperature, and start the rice seed drying with a key。
Xiao Fenghui, villager of Li Village in Lixin town, Jianning County, said that in the past, every household in the village had a drying mat, and the rice was spread on the drying mat during the autumn harvest, or it was turned regularly and dried for many days。If the seeds are not harvested in time in case of rain, they will become moldy。Now that the seeds are in the barn, they can be taken home in two days and two nights, which is more convenient。
Rice is one of the three major food crops in our country. In recent years, there have been new technologies and new achievements in rice breeding and seedling cultivation。
“634.Seven kilos!Not only high yield, but also high quality and environmental protection!"The average yield per mu of the new rice variety "Shrimp you 100" in Qingfeng Village, Touqiao Town, Guangling District, Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, surprised researchers at the Agricultural Science Institute。
"How to make Yangzhou fried rice delicious？The first thing is to have good rice。Zhangjiahong, a researcher at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences in Lixihe, Jiangsu Province, was introduced，Shrimp 100 is the first rice variety specially developed for rice and shrimp fields in Jiangsu Province by the rice breeding innovation team of Lixihe Agricultural Science Institute，It has not only withstood the adverse factors such as extreme hot weather and typhoons in the summer of 2022，It showed the characteristics of high plant, water tolerance and good quality，In addition, it can realize the production of high-quality rice with zero pesticide residues under the deep-water condition of rice and shrimp co-cropping。
In Arilang agricultural mechanized planting farmers' professional cooperative in Minle Korean Township, Wuchang City, Heilongjiang Province, 11 intelligent rice seedling greenhouses realize "wisdom" seedling cultivation。The seedling bed greenhouse control system can automatically control the temperature, humidity and other indexes in the greenhouse, which greatly improves the germination rate of seedlings。The transplanting technology of rice pot seedling not only saves manpower but also increases yield。
"Rice transplanter installed with Beidou navigation system"
In the winter morning, the winter wheat grows like a neat little soldier on the Dedao family farm in Pinghu Economic and Technological Development Zone, Pinghu City, Zhejiang province。Farmer Zhang Liangjie flies a drone over his field to fertilize wheat seedlings in an orderly manner。
Agricultural crop cultivation, and the competition with the sky, and the earth is inevitable, but Zhang Liangjie is confident about the next season of grain production on his farm。His roots lie in advanced agricultural technology。
"We have purchased new agricultural equipment and installed the Beidou navigation system for rice transplanters and planters。"Zhang Liangjie said。"Through the Beidou satellite control, you can enter the automatic driving mode after setting the route.。This not only saves manpower, but also improves the quality of crops and helps increase grain yields。”
In 2022, the average yield of 100 mu demonstration field of rice on Dedao family farm will be 533 kg, and the highest yield of wheat field will be 577 kg.04 kg, breaking through the 11 years of Zhejiang Province two highest record, such results can not be separated from the support of modern agricultural science and technology。Drug application by drones, rice transplanting by unmanned machines...These technologies allow farms to grow accurately and efficiently。
These days, in the wheat field of the farm, the unmanned seeder is replanting。Zhang Liangjie took out his mobile phone and performed a simple operation in the APP。"The spacing between each row of wheat seedlings is 20-30 centimeters is most conducive to crop growth, and mechanized planting can accurately control this distance and avoid nearly 70% of grass damage.。"Zhang Liangjie said。
Not only rice family farms, in Pinghu, Zhejiang, agricultural science and technology make agricultural production bid farewell to the hardships and extensive "relying on the sky to eat"。Cowpea in the sand, purple sunflower in the air, fast food in the nutrient liquid membrane...Compared with traditional agriculture，Located in Pinghu Agricultural Economic Development Zone of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Green trace Agricultural Technology Co., Ltd. not only has special planting methods，Output can also be nearly doubled，This is due to the combination of special planting methods and various scientific and technological equipment in the company's base。
In the morning of midwinter, the vast fields are covered with a layer of white frost, but in Zhejiang Green trace Agricultural Technology Co., LTD., it is another scene。The well-structured greenhouse and the drone in the middle of the road add a sense of mystery to the base, and the mystery of this digital agriculture begins with a Beidou Gaofen base station。"This base station can make a high-precision map of the farm, and we can rely on it to optimize the management and intelligent scheduling of the site, equipment and personnel。After the base station was built, we introduced unmanned vehicles, and now irrigation, water and fertilizer, environment, temperature control and other processes do not need manual intervention, relying on computers to complete。Yu Kui, head of Zhejiang Green Trace Agricultural Technology Co., LTD., pointed to the screen。
Only see the remaining kui mouse point, the screen will clearly display a lot of data: temperature 20℃, watering time 10:05, time 20 minutes...Yu Kui said that once the indicator is abnormal, the system will automatically alert。Through the mobile phone point can achieve greenhouse temperature control, irrigation and fertilization and other agricultural automation management, now the whole park 130 acres of land only need one administrator can。
With the blessing of these "high technologies", crops can be successfully grown in media other than soil。In the hydroponics and aeroponics planting areas, the purple anemones are uniformly planted "in the air".。Why do plants grow so well in the air？It turns out that in the area where the purple Anemone is planted, the nutrient solution required for plant growth exists in the air in the form of mist. In this way, the planting space can be fully utilized, and the water and fertilizer conditions of the plant roots can be optimized, and the nutrient solution can also be recycled。
In addition to hydroponics, aerosol culture, sand culture is also a highlight, the sand in the desert, the sea sand on the coast, etc., can be used as a planting medium to reduce diseases and pests。
Yu Kui said that compared with traditional agriculture, the digital agricultural technology has made the growth cycle of crops shorter for the same size of planting area。"We are now mainly doing some of our own production and output of crop standardization technology, hoping to make the use of digital agriculture more widespread in the future.。”
"Ecological agriculture is also a technical job"
Near Sanyuanqiao, Chaoyang District, Beijing, there is a small vegetable shop hidden in the bustling downtown area. The vegetable shop sells all kinds of vegetables and cereals. They all have a common feature, that is, the planting method is ecological low-carbon planting without pesticides and fertilizers。
GUI Zero Farm in Dali, Yunnan Province, is one of its suppliers。The farm has many things that are different from traditional farms, such as weeds that are considered "enemies" of crops are everywhere on the farm。Farmer Chen Yuhu has a sustainable farming practice. She says when weeds are cut from her farm, they are not thrown away. Instead, they are piled in the field。With all kinds of "weeds", there is a diversity of plants, and there will be all kinds of insects to make their home here。At the same time, layers of grass and dead leaves cover the land like a quilt, keeping the land at a relatively constant humidity and temperature, where various microorganisms can live。In this way, the farm will achieve a dynamic ecological balance, the soil will become healthier, and the crop will be greatly reduced by pests and diseases。
习近平总书记在中央农村工作会议上指出，"Building a strong agricultural country should reflect Chinese characteristics，Based on our national conditions，Based on the resource endowment of more people and less land, the historical heritage of agricultural civilization, and the requirements of the era of harmonious coexistence between man and nature，Go your own way，Not simply copy the model of foreign modern agricultural power"，To "develop ecological and low-carbon agriculture.，Continuous farming civilization"。
In recent years, as green and low-carbon has become a new trend in the development of all walks of life, the agricultural field is also achieving sustainable green and low-carbon development through the combination of modern technology and traditional farming civilization。
In Qiyang city, Hunan province, Chen Xiaolong, head of Hunan Shunqi Biotechnology Co., Ltd. and workers are preparing for spring ploughing。The company has 300 acres of "rice-duck model" ecological grain fields, all of which adopt green ecological production mode。
Chen Xiaolong is a doctoral student at Xiamen University, because he grew up in the countryside, out of love for agriculture, and the desire to "let more people eat healthy ecological food", five years ago, after graduation, he returned to his hometown to do ecological agriculture and agricultural science and technology research。
Many people say that ecological planting, no fertilizer, the yield is bound to be low, Chen Xiaolong does not believe。However, in the first year, the ecological grain field planted by Chen Xiaolong using the "rice duck model" produced less than 200 kilograms of rice per mu, but Chen Xiaolong did not want to give up, he insisted on not using pesticides and fertilizers, and did not spray herbicides。In order to improve production, in the past few years, he almost every day between the laboratory and the field, constantly carry out innovation, optimize and upgrade the "rice duck model", and the per-mu yield of the grain field has broken through 400 pounds and 500 pounds。
Duck and rice, mutual help, this is the wisdom of nature。Chen Xiaolong said that under the "rice-duck model", ducks can eat insects and weed, and their excrement provides organic fertilizer for the paddy field, and then it is combined with other green base fertilizers and equipment such as insect-attracting lamps to achieve coordinated development of agriculture and the environment。
"Some people think that ecological agriculture is not as high-tech as modern agriculture, which is actually wrong, and ecological agriculture is also a technical job.。As far as the "rice duck model" is concerned, although it has existed for a long time, how to make the benefits better while maintaining ecological health has been asked by some universities。Chen Xiaolong said that from what kind of rice to what type of ducks to raise, and then to how many ducks are suitable for raising in an mu field, it takes great effort to study。In order to better promote and develop ecological agriculture, Chen Xiaolong set up a biotechnology team with doctoral and master's students from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences to build an agricultural science and technology production model from seed cultivation to ecological planting and brand processing。In recent years, with the knowledge of crop genetics and breeding learned in school, Chen Xiaolong led the team to analyze the test data, and successfully cultivated Qishan Rouge rice and other excellent varieties through the screening and breeding of more than 2,000 sets of germplasm resources and tens of thousands of rice seedlings。Chen Xiaolong said he hopes that such scientific research based ecological planting model can be more widely promoted to promote the development of high-quality ecological agriculture in rural areas。
(Source: China Discipline Inspection and Supervision News)