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Technical guidance on the production of fruit and vegetable tea in response to high temperature and drought

Release time: 2023-07-19

      According to the National Meteorological Center,In the near future, some parts of North China, Northwest China, southwest China, Central China and East China will have periodic high temperature or continuous high temperature weather,Meteorological drought may develop in some areas,To reduce the adverse effects of disastrous weather on horticultural crop production,The Department of plant Management of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs organizes the national agricultural technology extension service center,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs vegetable, fruit tree, tea expert guidance group and related industrial technology system,Technical guidance on the production of fruit and vegetable tea in response to high temperature and drought was put forward。 

      1. Vegetables 

      1. Strengthening anti-heat and drought management 

      1.Strengthen shading and moisture conservation。The vegetables were covered by sunshade net, wet curtain cooling, spray cooling, grass on the surface, etc., focusing on strengthening the measures of sun protection and moisture preservation of fruits and vegetables, reducing direct sunlight and reducing the temperature of vegetable root zone;At the same time, remove the old yellow leaves, weaken the transpiration of plants, reduce water evaporation, and promote the growth of vegetables。 

      2.Actively divert water for irrigation。Drip irrigation or small ditch irrigation were used to carry out emergency irrigation for the fields with drought.The fruits and vegetables in the harvesting period should be properly fertilized with water。Irrigation should be carried out in the morning and evening when the weather is cool, and do not flood irrigation when the noon high temperature。Artificial rainfall can be used to alleviate drought conditions。 

      3.We will work hard to prevent and control diseases and insects。During high temperature and drought, air borne diseases such as powdery mildew and rust, and insect pests such as whitefly and Calyptoplast moth are easy to increase, so efficient, low toxic and low residue pesticides should be selected for timely prevention and control。High temperature weather should choose to apply medicine before 8 a.m. or after 5 p.m., to avoid the evaporation of pesticides due to high temperature, or the formation of drug damage to the plant。 

      4.Timely harvest and listing。Timely harvesting of vegetables that meet the harvesting standards;The affected vegetable fields should seize the vegetables that still have commercial value and minimize economic losses。 

      2. Actively promote autumn sowing production 

      1.Make a good cabin and kang floor。After removing the residues in the field, the vegetable facilities can spray wetlands, seal with film, and carry out high-temperature stifling sheds;Open vegetables should be turned deep in time, high temperature, kill pests and germs in the soil, and create favorable environmental conditions for the production of autumn vegetables。 

      2.Popularize the integration of water and fertilizer。Large-scale vegetable production base should build water and fertilizer integration facilities, popularize the application of precision irrigation and fertilization technology, as far as possible to achieve water saving, high yield and efficient production。 

      3.Grab the leafy vegetables。Seize the favorable opportunity of the higher price of vegetables during the "autumn light" period, accelerate the land preparation and grab a batch of quick-growing leafy vegetables, and choose vegetable varieties with strong drought resistance and better heat resistance, such as dwarf resistant green cabbage, amaranth, leaf potato tips, early celery, roselle and other fast-growing leafy vegetables。 

      4.Actively cultivate strong seedlings。All localities should actively organize intensive nursery farms to cultivate vegetable seedlings, and nursery facilities should pay attention to shading and cooling, using 30-50% shading nets to avoid burning seedlings at high temperatures and weak light。 

      5.Provide shade and sun protection。All places should actively transport and prepare vegetable seeds for autumn sowing, organize the successive sowing of autumn vegetables, timely transplanting of fruit and vegetable seedlings, and cover sunshade nets in the case of high temperature weather after seedling emergence and transplanting。The light-loving vegetables choose the silver gray sunshade net with low shading rate, and the shade-tolerant vegetables choose the black sunshade net with high shading rate。 

      2. Fruit Trees 

      (1) Strengthen irrigation and cooling sun protection 

      High temperature and drought damage generally occur at the same time. Reasonable irrigation should be used to increase soil moisture and reduce soil temperature in orchards to alleviate the harm of high temperature and drought。In the early morning or evening, small amounts of irrigation such as sprinkler irrigation, micro-sprinkler irrigation or drip irrigation are used to avoid flood irrigation。When using hole irrigation and trench irrigation, dig 2-4 soil relief pits around the drip line in the crown of the tree, with a width and depth of about 30cm, and fill the soil relief pit each time to improve the irrigation effect。Irrigation time should try to avoid the high temperature period, to avoid cold water irrigation aggravate the physiological wilting of the tree。According to the temperature condition, the tree crown can be cooled and humidified with water, improve the microclimate of the orchard, and alleviate the damage of high temperature and direct sun on the tree body and fruit。Young orchards, facilities cultivation fruit trees or orchards with high economic benefits can be covered with sunshade nets to reduce direct sunlight, and pay attention to the mulch not to contact the plant directly。 

      2. Strengthen soil and tree management 

      Soil loosening, grass planting and ground cover can significantly reduce surface temperature and delay water evaporation。The orchards should retain the shallow root dwarf grass outside the tree plate. On the basis of irrigation, the shallow pine topsoil of the orchard should be provided with conditions or the tree plate should be covered with straw, husk, weeds, degradable anti-grass cloth, etc., to increase the moisture and heat insulation effect and enhance the cooling and drought resistance of the fruit trees。Appropriate pruning of branches and leaves to cultivate a reasonable tree body。The high temperature and low humidity environment is easy to break out red spiders, yellow spiders and other pests, and it is necessary to pay attention to disease and insect monitoring and timely prevention and control。Harvest ripe fruit in time to reduce yield loss and water and nutrient consumption of the tree。At the same time, do a good job to prevent high temperature, drought and heavy rain flooding response, easy to water orchard, clean and dredge the drainage ditch in advance, should ensure that the depth of the main drainage ditch reaches more than 60cm。 

      3. Recovery management after damage 

      After the occurrence of high temperature heat damage, it is necessary to ensure the stability of field water capacity。Leaf quality, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate can be increased by spraying potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) on leaf surface。If it rains after continuous high temperature and drought, it is easy to crack fruit, and it is not appropriate to apply a lot of fertilizer immediately, and it can be sprayed once in time.2%—0.4% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.Leaf fertilizer such as 5% potassium nitrate can promote tree potential recovery and prevent secondary losses after rain。After the high temperature and drought are relieved, the dead branches should be pruned in time, and the fruit trees with more dead branches should be treated with preservatives in time。Clean up plants that have no saving value in time, and replant seedlings in time when the weather is suitable。 

      3. Tea garden 

      1. Strengthening anti-heat and drought management 

      1.Cover shade。Shade net was used to cover the tea canopy by means of scaffolding to reduce the direct light intensity。The sunshade net should be more than 50cm higher than the tea tree to avoid being close to the tea tree and causing burns。 

      2.Grass mulch。Cover the tea garden with grass。Use about 1 ton of hay per mu, the thickness of the grass is 5-10 cm, can cut mountain grass and weeds, or use straw, wheat stalk, bean straw, bagasse, wood chips and tea garden pruning branches and leaves as grass sources。 

      3.Timely irrigation。Before the onset of high temperature and drought, reservoirs, ditches, channels, etc., should be built in advance, and water-saving irrigation facilities such as plastic rainwater collection cellars and spray drip irrigation should be installed。When the relative moisture content of the topsoil of the tea garden is reduced to about 70%, or when the average daily temperature is above 28 ° C and there is no rain for 7-10 days, irrigation and water replenishment are carried out every morning and evening。 

      2. Managing post-disaster recovery 

      1.Tree management。After the high temperature is basically relieved and the soil of the tea garden is moist, the damaged tea garden should be treated in time. For the severely damaged tea garden, the dead branches should be cut off 1-2cm below the dead part of the tea tree.For mildly or moderately damaged tea gardens, do not do pruning, leave the branches to keep the trees。 

      2.Timely replacement。When dead seedlings appear in young tea gardens, they should be replaced in time to avoid missing plants。 

      3.Rational fertilization。Young tea garden available in dry season 0.External topdressing with 5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution。After the drought, the tea garden can be opened to apply compound fertilizer or organic fertilizer, and the fertilizer amount is determined according to the planting density and growth of tea trees。Generally, compound fertilizer can be applied 20-30kg per mu, organic fertilizer is more than 500kg, and leaf fertilizer can also be sprayed appropriately。 

      4.Keep autumn tea。Whether pruned or not, autumn tea should be kept to rejuvenate the tree crown。After the tea tree stops growing at the end of autumn, a topping or light pruning should be carried out when the tea buds are still green。

      (Source: National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center, Planting Management Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs